Production Cost of a Weaner Pig In Nigeria For Financial and Business Plans
Wait! Just before you sell that Pig cheaply let’s discuss the cost of producing it. Let me ramble a bit……
In Piggery we have two types of Farmers:
This category of Farmers have Boars and Sows that produce Piglets that are sold as Weaners or are raised to maturity(farrow to finish) and sold for slaughter.
They do all the sweating and invest on nursery infrastructure as well and usually get exploited by Fattener Farmers or middlemen.
I think i would call them pretenders.
They are mostly interested in buying Weaners cheaply from farmers who have their figures messed up, broke or have run out of Pen space.
The Fattener Farmers always go around with a War-chest of funds to intimidate the broke Breeder Farmer into selling Weaners cheaply.
Now I started as a Breeder Farmer and have remained so come rain or sunshine.
I have taken my time to master the business, optimise my production and most importantly get my figures right and pay myself an income from the Pigs.
So let me share with you how I do my costing:
As we all know this is the period of sow pregnancy averaging 115 days.
At this stage the Sow feed per kilogram is cheaper so lets assume a kilogram of Gestation feed costs 40 naira per kg.
If the Sow eats 2 Kg a day for 115 days we have:
115 Days x 2 Kg x 40 Naira= 9,200 Naira
this will be the feed cost for a sow from mating to farrowing day.
this cost would definitely escalate if your mating isn’t optimal due to missed heat/mating, miscarriages/abortions etc
This for me lasts 42 days. The feed cost maybe 80 Naira per Kg.
so let’s assume the Sow consumes an average of 5 Kg a day for 42 days.
5 Kg x 42 Days x 80 Naira=16,800 Naira
If we combine the Gestation and Lactation Feed costs we get:
Gestation Feed Cost + Lactation Feed Cost = Total Breeding Feed Cost.
9,200 + 16,800 = 26,000 Naira per Litter / Farrow
BOAR MAINTENANCE COST
Assuming the Boar feed costs 40 naira per kg. If the Boar eats 2kg a day for 365 days we have:
365 Days x 2 Kg x 40 Naira= 29,200 Naira.
Now if a Boar handles 15 Sows and a maximum of 30 farrowings in a year we arrive at.
29,200 Naira / 30 Farrowings = 973 Naira per Litter/Farrow
lets assume average of 500 naira per farrow/litter
Electricity or Generator you will have to pump water for the Pigs at a cost.
Let’s assume a Sow consumes 10 litres of clean water a day.
In 115 days that’s 1,150 litres.
In 42 days that’s 420 litres.
That’s a total of 1,570 Litres of Water for 157 days.
This is an average estimate she could consume less during Gestation and more during Lactation.
So assuming you are using Generator to pump water you would spend at least 400 Naira to pump 1,570 Litres. You can work out the alternate cost using public power supply.
for argument sake let’s assume 400 Naira per Litter/Farrowing.
It’s possible no damage will happen and atimes damage could be extensive
let’s assume 200 Naira per Litter/Farrow.
Let’s assume one man can take care of 100 Pigs including Sows. Let’s assume Salary is 15,000.
for Gestation and Lactation which is roughly 6 months salary would equate 90000 Naira.
Now if you divide 90,000 Naira /100 Pigs you get 900 Naira per Pig.
So we can can assume labour cost for a Litter/Farrowing as 900 Naira.
Other costs include:
definitely you commute to the farm and we all know petrol isn’t cheap.
How often do you visit and how many kilometres do you travel? What about vehicle maintenance?
Yes! mortality can happen anytime on the farm.
It’s possible for a pregnant Sow to unexpectedly drop dead, however if she farrows successfully you could still lose some piglets before weaning. this will definitely raise production costs.
will farming be an expensive hobby or an investment for you? you have to pay yourself!
is your farm rented?
what’s the Cost of the space occupied by a Sow?
Now let’s sum up what we have been able to derive:
Gestation + Lactation + Boar + Drugs + Water + Labour + Maintenance
9,200 + 16,800 + 973 + 500 + 400 + 900 + 200 = 28,973 Naira.
Now if the Average Weaning rate per Litter is 8 Piglets, we can can derive the cost of producing a Weaner.
28,973 Naira / 8 Piglets =3,622 Naira.
Note this is just a modest basic cost only estimate. It doesn’t capture your salary as the Boss, however its a starting point for your financial analysis and pig business plan.
So, considering all these expenses how much would you sell a Weaner Pig considering your Salary/profit on the Farm ?